Nepal is divided into seven provinces, each with its own unique cultural, geographical, and socio-economic characteristics. Here’s an overview of library and information services across the provinces of Nepal:

1. Koshi Province: Koshi Province is located in the eastern part of Nepal, includes cities like Biratnagar and Dhankuta. It hosts various public libraries, academic institutions, and specialized libraries focusing on subjects like agriculture, forestry, and local history. The libraries here play crucial roles in supporting education, research, and community development, offering access to books, digital resources, and organizing educational programs. Readmore…

2. Madhesh: Madhesh is situated in the southern plains of Nepal, known as the Terai region. Major cities include Janakpur and Birgunj. Libraries in this province cater to diverse communities and educational institutions, offering services that promote literacy, cultural preservation, and community engagement. Digital libraries and information centers are increasingly important here, helping bridge the digital divide. Readmore…

3. Bagmati Province: Bagmati Province, encompassing Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas, is the cultural and political hub of Nepal. It hosts numerous public libraries, academic institutions like Tribhuvan University, and specialized libraries focused on art, history, and Himalayan studies. Digital libraries and information centers in Kathmandu and Lalitpur offer extensive online resources and support digital literacy initiatives. Readmore…

4. Gandaki Province: Gandaki Province, known for its picturesque landscapes and cultural heritage, includes cities like Pokhara and Gorkha. Libraries here serve local communities, schools, and universities, providing access to educational materials, research resources, and organizing community-oriented programs. Specialized libraries focus on subjects such as tourism, archaeology, and local traditions. Readmore…

5. Lumbini Province: Lumbini Province, named after the birthplace of Lord Buddha, encompasses cities like Butwal and Bhairahawa. Libraries in this province often highlight Buddhist studies, history, and regional development. They contribute to cultural preservation and community empowerment through educational initiatives and cultural events. Readmore…

6. Karnali Province: Karnali Province, located in the far-western region of Nepal, is known for its remote and rugged terrain. Libraries in cities like Jumla and Surkhet play crucial roles in providing access to educational resources, supporting academic research, and promoting local culture and heritage. Digital libraries are increasingly important in this region to enhance information access. Readmore…

7. Sudurpaschim Province: Sudurpaschim Province, in the far-western part of Nepal, includes cities like Dhangadhi and Mahendranagar. Libraries here serve diverse communities, providing access to books, digital resources, and organizing community engagement activities. They contribute to education, cultural preservation, and socio-economic development in the region. Readmore…

Challenges and Opportunities: Across all provinces, common challenges include limited funding, infrastructure constraints, and the need for enhanced digital literacy initiatives. However, there are opportunities for growth through government support, international partnerships, and community involvement. Libraries in Nepal’s provinces continue to evolve, adapting to meet the changing needs of their communities and playing vital roles in promoting education, preserving culture, and fostering community development.

Provinces Number of libraries








Koshi Province








Source: Public and Community Libraries in Nepal (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology et. al, 2022)